By Professor Dr. Vladimir S. Stepanov (auth.), Professor Dr. Vladimir S. Stepanov (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3642771483

ISBN-13: 9783642771484

ISBN-10: 3642771505

ISBN-13: 9783642771507

It is universally well-known that the top of the present and the start of the subsequent century might be characterised by way of a thorough switch within the latest tendencies within the monetary improvement of all nations and a transition to new ideas of financial administration at the foundation of a source and effort conservation coverage. therefore there's an pressing necessity to review tools, technical aids and financial effects of this modification, and especially, to figure out the potential quantities of power assets that could be conserved (energy "reserves") in several spheres of the nationwide economic climate. An elevated curiosity in the direction of power conservation in undefined, one of many biggest strength shoppers, is sort of typical and is manifested through the big num­ ber of courses in this subject. however the majority of courses are dedicated to the answer of narrowly outlined difficulties, decision of power reserves in particular tactics and vegetation, potency estimation of person strength conserva­ tion measures, and so forth. despite the fact that, it is crucial to enhance a normal methodological method of the answer of such difficulties and create a systematic and methodical base for understanding an power conservation coverage. Such an attempt is made during this e-book, that is keen on equipment for learning strength use potency in technological strategies and estimation of the theoretical and real power reserves in a given approach, know-how, or business zone at the foundation in their whole power balances.

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6 A process in which entropy decreases is an exception. , anergy attracted from the environment is converted into exergy. 2. Efficiency of Technological Processes Based on Energy Balance The law of conservation of energy, the first law of thennodynamics, allows us to evaluate the efficiency of a given technological process via an energy balance. The methods of drawing the energy balance and the possibilities it affords for studying various technical systems can differ. This author has developed his own version for studying processes with complex physico-chemical transfonnations of matter and energy.

The calculation of the chemical energy and exergy is carried out in a sequence of steps. First, all the elements are arranged. The elements 0, N, C and H occupy the first four places, the rest are arranged according to their Clark units. 2 Short Overview of Methods 41 chemical energy of air, oxygen and nitrogen are set equal to zero. The chemical exergy of 0, N, He, Ne and Ar are determined with respect to their concentration in the atmosphere, whose chemical exergy is assumed to be zero. For example, the chemical energy of carbon is determined by enthalpy of formation of carbon dioxide and the chemical exergy, that is, by using the Gibbs energy of formation of C02 and its partial pressure in the atmosphere.

This assumption disregards the exergy changes that occur due to the formation of a large number of chemical bonds in the solid fuel which cannot be taken into account exactly. 20) Convenient, but more complex formulas for determining the values of chemical exergy of fuels were proposed by Zakharov [205]. They take into account qualitative characteristics of fuels such as their ash content (A=), moisture (wre"), oxygen content (orec), etc. 02Qi . 24) Primarily hydrocarbon fuels can in many cases be considered, without gross errors, as pure mixtures of carbon and hydrogen.

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Analysis of Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes by Professor Dr. Vladimir S. Stepanov (auth.), Professor Dr. Vladimir S. Stepanov (eds.)


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