By R. L. Heath (auth.), Kurt F. J. Heinrich, Charles S. Barrett, John B. Newkirk, Clayton O. Ruud (eds.)
The software of solid-state detectors of excessive strength answer to x-ray spectrometry, and the expanding use of compu ters in either size and information assessment, are giving a brand new stimulus to x-ray recommendations in analytical chemistry. the 20 th Annual Denver X-ray convention displays this renewed curiosity in numerous methods. The invited papers, grouped in consultation I, overview the charac teristics of the detectors utilized in the size of x-rays. One paper is devoted to the detection of unmarried ions. even if any such topic might sound to be marginal to the needs of the Denver convention, we needs to realize the affinity of suggestions utilized to related reasons. Ion probe mass spectrometry is devoted to projects just like these played via x-ray spectrometry with the electron probe microanalyzer. Scientists and technologists will see those ideas mentioned within the comparable conferences. The dialogue of automation and programming isn't really restricted to the 2 invited audio system, yet extends to papers offered in additional than one consultation. the problem of fluorescence research via isotope- and tube-excitation can also be of significant curiosity to these keen on the sensible purposes of x-ray ideas. The communications contained during this quantity, and the vigorous discussions which often the presentation of papers, attest to the energy of the topics that are the worry of the yearly Denver X-ray Conference.
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Extra info for Advances in X-Ray Analysis: Volume 15
T Cu 2 7 L. • ' "'Cu 6~Cu ) ' I• • o I / 63 Fig. 17. \ I I 1\ 1 \ '\ 6572 79 BB 90 126 126 142 MASS Of' lOr. , "~ IS • Cu Cu 0 ) 144 Ion microprobe scan below surface layer of CuBe dynode. isotopes with oxygen. Iron is much smaller and lead is absent. rface. We can estimate the beryllium concentration at the surface of the dynode by using a spectrographic analysis of the CuBe alloy to calibrate the Cu and Be ion current intensities relative to each other. 9 weight ~ Be converts into 13 atom~, so that in the bulk material there are 5 atoms of Cu-63 for every Be-9 atom.
To obtain this information from the raw data it is necessary to perform the following operations: (1) locate the median positions of the symmetric "peaks" in the pulse-height distribution; (2) establish a channel-number vs. energy scale by suitable calibration techniques, taking into consideration the linearity of the electronic instrumentation; (3) determine the energy of the x-ray photons observed in the pulse-height spectrum from the information obtained in the first two steps; (4) determine the area (intensity) of the peaks in question with subtraction of the underlying continuum; (5) compare the calculated energies of the peaks with a list of energies of all the characteristic x-rays to identify the elements detected in the sample; (6) determine the concentration of each element present in the sample from the peak areas by suitable calibrat·ion techniques.
Heath In order to implement completely automated data analysis of pulse-amplitude spectra it has been necessary to develop a procedure for locating peaks without operator intervention. Several approaches have been developed for this purpose. The simplest procedure in use locates peaks in a spectrum by examining the change in slope between data points, taking into account statistical variation in the data points. (11) In this technique, the reversal of direction of the slope between adjacent data points gives an indication of the presence of a peak.
Advances in X-Ray Analysis: Volume 15 by R. L. Heath (auth.), Kurt F. J. Heinrich, Charles S. Barrett, John B. Newkirk, Clayton O. Ruud (eds.)
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