By Patrick Cozzi
Supported with code examples and the authors’ real-world adventure, this booklet bargains the 1st consultant to engine layout and rendering algorithms for digital globe purposes like Google Earth and NASA international Wind. The content material is usually worthy for basic pictures and video games, specially planet and massive-world engines. With pragmatic recommendation all through, it truly is crucial analyzing for practitioners, researchers, and hobbyists in those components, and will be used as a textual content for a different issues path in special effects.
Topics lined include:
- Rendering globes, planet-sized terrain, and vector data
- Multithread source management
- Out-of-core algorithms
- Shader-based renderer design
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Additional info for 3D Engine Design for Virtual Globes
Also, we define client code as code that calls the renderer, for example, application code that uses the renderer to issue draw commands. Finally, software design is often subjective, and there is rarely a single best solution. We want you to view our design as something that has worked well for us in virtual globes, but as only one of a myriad approaches to renderer design. 1 The Need for a Renderer Given that APIs such as OpenGL and Direct3D are already an abstraction, it is natural to ask, why build a renderer layer in our engine at all?
Then, we consider scaling an arbitrary WGS84 point to the surface using both a geocentric and geodetic surface normal. Finally, we combine the conversion for surface points with scaling along the geodetic surface normal to create a conversion for arbitrary WGS84 points. The algorithm presented here uses only two inverse trigonometric functions and converges quickly, especially for Earth’s oblate spheroid. WGS84 surface points to geographic. Given a WGS84 point (xs , ys , zs ) on the surface of an ellipsoid (a, b, c) centered at the origin, the geographic point (λ, φ) is straightforward to compute.
R o t a t e A r o u n d A x i s ( n o r m a l , p h i ) ; positions . Add ( ScaleToGeocentricSurface ( rotated ) ) ; } positions . Add ( q ) ; return positions ; } // ... 11. Computing a curve on the ellipsoid between two surface points. ✛ Try This Try This Question ✘ Run Chapter02Curves and experiment with the ellipsoid oblateness and curve granularity. How can we implement LOD for a curve? ComputeCurve to create curves at a constant height above or below the ellipsoid. ✚ ✙ ✬ ✩ Instead of using an angular granularity and rotating around the plane’s normal, an implementation could simply use linear interpolation to subsample points along the line connecting the endpoints, then call ScaleToGeocentricSurface for each point.
3D Engine Design for Virtual Globes by Patrick Cozzi
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